Electronic Industries

Bibliography on working conditions in culturally related electronics industries

This section offers a list of resources related to the electronics industries. Although the electronic industries are not strictly part of the media and arts, the media could not function without these neighbouring industries. Still, the labour and working conditions in the electronics industries are a matter of growing concern for labour campaigners.

The following list comes from Professor Chad Raphael, Santa Clara University and full credit and thanks goes to him for compiling it for the site.


Worldwide groups offering current, evidence-based reports on labour in electronics production, recycling, and disposal (with links attached)


Books offering overviews of conditions in these industries

Challenging the Chip: Labor Rights and Environmental Justice in the Global Electronics Industry, eds. Ted Smith, David A. Sonnenfeld, and David Naguib Pellow (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006).

The Routledge Companion to Labor and Media, ed. Richard Maxwell (New York and London: Routledge, 2015).


Articles offering summaries of the research on occupational health and safety in these industries

Joseph LaDou, “Occupational Health in the Semiconductor Industry,” in Challenging the Chip, 31-42

Joseph Ladou and John C. Bailar, “Cancer And Reproductive Risks in the Semiconductor Industry,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 13 (2007): 376-85

Myoung-Hee Kim, Hyunjoo Kim, and Domyung Paek, “The Health Impacts of Semiconductor Production: An Epidemiologic Review,” International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 20 (2014): 95-114


Research findings on the hazards of e-waste recycling

Xia Huo et al., “Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, An Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China,” Environmental Health Perspectives 115 (2007): 1113-17

Xia Huo et al., “ALAD Genotypes and Blood Lead Levels of Neonates and Children from E-Waste Exposure in Guiyu, China,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014): 1-7

Xijin Xu et al., “Birth Outcomes Related to Informal E-Waste Recycling in Guiyu, China,” Reproductive Toxicology 33 (2012): 94-98

Xijin Xu et al., “Increase Male Genital Diseases Morbidity Linked to Informal Electronic Waste Recycling in Guiyu, China,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research 21 (2014): 3540-5


Research on conflict minerals

Safiatou Ba-N’Daw, François Ekoko, Mel Holt, Henri Maire, and Moustapha Tall, Report of the Panel of Experts on the Illegal Exploitation of Natural Resources and Other Forms of Wealth of the Democratic Republic of Congo, report to the United Nations Security Council, 12 April 2001

Global e-Sustainability Initiative, Social and Environmental Responsibility in Metals Supply to the Electronic Industry. Global e-Sustainability Initiative: Brussels, 2008

Sources offering policy prescriptions for improving labor conditions in electronics work
Electronics TakeBack Coalition, The Vision for Sustainable Electronics Project
Raphael, Chad, and Ted Smith (2015). The Future of Activism for Electronics Workers, in The Routledge Companion to Labor and Media, ed. Richard Maxwell (New York and London: Routledge)
Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM), Report of the International Workshop on Hazardous Substances within the Life-Cycle of Electrical and Electronic Products, Held in Vienna, from 29 to 31 March 2011
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